Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Women’s Resistance in Cotton Industry: a Study of Ecological Destruction in East Sumba

R.L.K.R. Nugrohowardhani


National Cotton Acceleration Program (NCAP) being incepted in East Sumba since 2008 has created resistances among women farmers in Tanamanang Village. Forms of resistances are as follows: first they called the cotton as “project cotton” representing a symbolic resistance with negative connotation in speaking against the government project by reducing the existence of the word into “project”—no more no less. The second resistance is open-resistance in which they break the rules of planting-time, harvesting-time, and all the promises being signed before between the government and the farmers. The third resistance is by rejecting the program being incepted into their land. They openly say no to the planting of cotton in their front-back yard.


women; cotton; resistance; ecofeminism

Full Text:



Abu-Lughod, Lila, 1990. “The Romance of Resistance: Tracing Transformation of Power Through Bedouin Women”. American Ethnologist. Vol. 17, Issue 1, pp 41 - 55.

Anagol, Padma, 2008. “From the Symbolic to the Open : Women’s Resistance in Colonial Maharashtra”. Behind the Veil: Resistance, Women, and the Everyday in Colonial South Asia. Palgrave MacMillan.

Andalas, Patrisius Mutiara, SJ, 2013. “Perempuan Melawan Ecocide (Pembantaian Massal Ekologi): Tafsir Ekofeminis Kristiani”. Ekofeminisme dalam Tafsir Agama, Pendidikan,

Ekonomi, dan Budaya. Seri I Kajian Ekofeminisme. Yogyakarta. Jalasutra Astuti, Tri Marhaeni Pudji, 2012. “Ekofeminisme dan Peran Perempuan dalam Lingkungan.” Indonesian Journal of Conservation, Vol.1, No.1, hal. 49 – 60

Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pemanis dan Serat (Balittas):

Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Sumba Timur, 2013. Sumba Timur dalam Angka 2013 online. BPS Kabupaten Sumba Timur :


Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Sumba Timur, 2013. Statistik Daerah Kabupaten Sumba Timur 2013 online. BPS Kabupaten Sumba Timur

Basuki, T.; Sahid, M., & Wanita, Y.P., 2007. “Pengembangan Kapas Di Indonesia dan Permasalahannya” dalam Prosiding Lokakarya Nasional Kapas dan Rami. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan. p.142-146.

Benu, Fred L., 2011. “Mengapa harus disebut pertanian lahan kering, padahal aktivitas budidaya selalu bersentuhan dengan ketersediaan air?” Dialektika Pertanian Lahan Kering. Diakses dari:

Castella, Jean-Christophe; Damien Jourdain; Guy Trebuil; Banpot Napompeth, 1999. “A systems approach to understanding obstacles to effective implementation of IPM in Thailand: key issues for the cotton industry”. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment

No. 72, pp 17-34

Chapagain, A.K; A.Y. Hoekstra; H.H.G. Savenije; R. Gautam, 2005. “The water footprint of cotton consumption”. Value of Water Research Report Series No. 18. UNESCO-IHE Delft

Dialektika Pertanian Lahan Kering:

Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan - Kementerian Pertanian, 2012. Kebijakan Pengembangan Cotton Belt di Nusa Tenggara Timur. Balittas doc.

Flores News :

Fox, James J., 2001. “Sejarah Sosial dan Kebijakan Pemerintah atas Pembangunan Pertanian di Indonesia Timur”. Pembangunan Pertanian Di Wilayah Kering Indonesia.

Prosiding Konferensi Internasional Pembangunan Pertanian Semi Arid Nusa Tenggara Timur, Timor Timur, dan Maluku Tenggara. Tanggal 10 – 16 Desember 1995 di Kupang.

Gaard, Greta, 2011. “Ecofeminism Revisited: Rejecting Essentialism and Re-Placing Species in a Material Feminist Environmentalism”. Feminist Formations, Vol. 23 No. 2 (Summer) pp. 26–53

Ghosh, Anindita, 2008. Behind the Veil: Resistance, Women, and the Everyday in Colonial South Asia. Palgrave MacMillan.

Gladwell, M. 2008. Outliers: The Story of Success. Penguin Books.


  • There are currently no refbacks.