Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Status of Women as Citizen in the Paradigm of Inclusive Citizenship

Baiq L.S.W. Wardhani

Abstract

Political arena has witnessed the masculinization of women’s role in the public. The tendency to give the public to men has made women unable to express their ideas in full engagement as equal citizen. Involving back women into the discourse of the state is a form of defeating the myth that women are irresponsible citizens. Irresponsibility of women is the reversal effect of political exclusion of female’s voices under the regimentation of male-based polity. This paper will investigate the status of women specifically under the paradigm of active and inclusive citizenship.

Keywords

citizenship status; women; inclusive citizenship; Africa; Indonesia

Full Text:

PDF

References

Agbajobi, D., 2010a. ‘The Role of Women in Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding’, in eds. R. Bowd and A. B. Chikwanha, Understanding Africa’s Contemporary Conflicts, African Human Security Initiative, pp. 233-254. Institute for Security Studies (ISS), Pretoria. Summary version, diakses dari http://www.gsdrc.org/go/

display&type=Document&id=4277. Diakses pada 31 Desember 2013.

Agbajobi, D., 2010b. The Role of Women in Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding.

Dalam Bowd, Richard dan Annie Barbara Chikwanha (eds.). Understanding Africa’s Contemporary Conflicts: Origins, Challenges and Peacebuilding. Select conference papers from the AHSI Conference on Peace and Security in Africa ‘Beyond the African Union

Charter, Peace, Security and Justice’, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 21 – 22 February 2008.

Ayokhai, F.E.F. n.d. Colonial Africa’s Historiography and Gender: the Case of Uzairhue Women in Science and Technology in Benin Province; 1900 – 1960. Diakses dari https://www.

academia.edu/1920291/Colonial_Africas_Historiography_and_Gender_the_Case_of_

Uzairhue_Women_in_Science_and_Technology_in_Benin_Province_1900_-_1960. Diakses pada 6/2/2014.

Bangalie, Florence N. 2011. An Examination of the Role of Women in Conflict Management: Sierra Leone a Case of Study. MA Dissertation, University of Malta.

Berger, Irish. 2008. Feminism, Patriarchy, and African Women’s History.Journal of Women’s History,Volume 20, Number 2, Summer 2008, hal. 130-135.

Birkhoff, Juliana E. n.d. Gender, Conflict and Conflict Resolution. Diakses dari https://www.mediate.com/articles/birkhoff.cfm. Diakses pada 14/1/2014

Gaventa, John. 2005. Dalam Kabeer, Naila (ed.). Foreword. 2005. Inclusive Citizenship: Meanings and Expression. New York, Zed Books.

Darwin, Muhadjir. 2004. Gerakan Perempuan Indonesia dari Masa ke Masa. Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik, Vol. 7, No.3, Maret 2004, hal. 283-294.

Dimandja, Agnes Loretta. 2004. The Role and Place of Women in Sub-Saharan African Societies. Diakses dari http://www.globalaging.org/elderrights/world/2004/subsaharan.

htm. Diakses pada 6/2/2014.

International Alert. 2010. Changing Fortunes: Women’s Economic Opprtunities in Post War Northern Uganda. Kampala, The Print House.

Guothro, Patricia A. 2007. Active and Inclusive Citizenship for Women:Democratic Considerations for Fostering Lifelong Education. International Journal of Lifelong Education, Vol. 26, No. 2, (Maret-April 2007), hal. 143-154.

Helms, Emily. 2011. Women in Society, Women as Society: Lessons in Peacebuilding from Liberia. Diakses dari https://www.academia.edu/1384313/Women_in_Society_Women_

as_Society_Lessons_in_Peacebuilding_from_Liberia. Diakses pada 7/2/2014

Herndon, Gerise dan Shirley Randell. 2013. Surviving Genocide, Thriving in Politics: Rwandan Women’s Power. Cosmopolitan Civil Societies Journal, Vol.5, No.1, 2013, hal. 69-96.

Holmes, Georgina. 2013. Women and Peacemaking in Burundi: another Mandela Legacy.

http://africanarguments.org/2013/12/13/women-and-peacemaking-in-burundianother-mandela-legacy-by-georgina-holmes/Diakses

pada 7/2/2014.

http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm. 2013. Women in National Parliaments. Diakses pada 7/2/2014

http://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2013/12/nelson-mandela-work-in-burundi.

Remembering Nelson Mandela’s work to bring women to the table during peace talks in Burundi. Diakses pada 7/2/2014.

Isike, Christopher. nd. Feminizing the peace process in Africa: A comparative analysis of women, conflict and peace-building in KwaZulu-Natal and the Niger-Delta. University

of KwaZulu-Natal.

Jones, Katelyn. 2011. West African Women Unite: the Inclusion of Women in Peace Process.Diakses dari http://129.100.242.151/xampp/ojs/index.php/UTJR/article/

download/15/14. Diakses pada 10/2/2014.

Kabeer, Naila. 2005. Dalam Kabeer, Naila (ed.). Introduction: the Search for inclusive Citizenship: Meanings and Expression in an Interconnected World. 2005. Inclusive

Citizenship: Meanings and Expression. New York, Zed Books.

Kasongo, Alhonse. nd. Gender and Conflict: The Role of Woman in Conflict. Diakses dari https://www.academia.edu/297031/Gender_and_Conflict_The_role_of_woman_in_conflict. Diakses pada 13/1/2014.

Kattou, Elena. 2014. Women and Peacebuilding in Rwanda. The African Union Human Rights Memorial. Diakses dari http://alembekagn.org/news-a-articles/articles/129-

women-and-peacebuilding-in-rwanda. Diakses pada 10/2/2014.

KITLV, nd. From Clients to Citizens? Emerging Citizenship in Democratising Indonesia.

Proyek kerjasama antara KITLV, Universitas Gadja Madah, University of Amsterdam dan Leiden University. Diakses dari http://www.kitlv.nl/pdf_documents/From_Clients_

to_Citizens_general_description.pdf. Diakses pada 11/2/2014.

Lister, Ruth. 1997. Engendering Citizenship, Work and Care. Aalborg: Department of History, International and Social Studies, Aalborg University.

Lombardo, Emanuela dan Mieke Verloo. 2009. Contentious Citizenship: Feminist Debates and Practices and European Challenges. Feminist Review, no. 92. Hal. 108-128.

Maloutas, Maro Pantelidou. 2006. The Gender of Democracy. In Maloutas, Maro Pantelidou (ed.). The Gender of Democracy: Citizenship and Gendered Subjectivity. London, Routledge.

Marshall, T.H. 1950. Citizenship and Social Class. Dalam Manza, Jeff and Michael Sauder.

Inequality and Society. New York, W.W. Norton and Co.

Mutamba, John dan Izabiliza, Jeanne. 2005. The Role of Women in Reconciliation and Peace Building in Rwanda: Ten Years After Gonocide 1994-2004: Contributions, Challenges and

Way Forward. Kigali: The National Unity and Commission (NURC).

Nabukeera-Mosuke, Harriet. 2009.Transitional Justice and Gender in Uganda: Making Peace, Failing Women during the Peace Negotiation Process. African Journal on Conflict Resolution, Vol. 9, No. 2.

Ogbomo, Onaiwu W. 2005. Women, Power and Society in Pre-colonial Africa. Abstrcat.

Lagos Historical Review, vol. 5 (2005), 49-74.

OSAGI (Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women), nd.

Landmark resolution on Women, Peace and Security. Diakses darihttp://www.un.org/womenwatch/osagi/wps/ Diakses pada 9/2/2014

Preece, Julia. 2009. Gender issues for active citizenship. Centre for Research and Development in Adult and Lifelong Learning (CRADALL), University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK. Diakses dari http://llw.acs.si/ac/09/cd/full_papers_plenary/Preece.pdf.

Diakses pada 26/12/2013

Roseneil, Sasha. 2013. Beyond Citizenship? risalah singkat, diakses dari http:// w w w. h u f f i n g t o n p o s t . c o. u k / p r o f e s s o r - s a s h a - r o s e n e i l / f e m i n i s m - b eyo n d -

citizenship_b_2829238.html. Diakses pada 27/12/2013

Smiley, Marion. 2004. Gender, Democratic Citizenship v. Patriarchy: A Feminist Perspective

on Rawls. Fordham Law Review.Vol. 72, Issue 5, hal. 1599-1627. Diakses dari http://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/flr/vol72/iss5/11. Diakses pada 26/12/2013.

Sunindyo, Saraswati. 1999. Murder, Gender and the Media.Dalam Sears, Laurie J. 1999 (2nd edition). Fantasizing Feminine in Indonesia. Duke University Press.

Tupper, Jennifer. 2002. The Gendering of Citizenship in Social Studies Curriculum.

Canadian Social Studies, Vol. 36, no. 3, Spring 2002.

Urbanek, Doris. 2013. Intersectionality and Inclusive Citizenship. 3rd European Conference on Politics and Gender, 21-23 April 2013. Barcelona, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.

Wartafeminis.com Kongres Perempuan Indonesia, Sebuah Gerakan Perempuan 1928-1941.

www.marwopnet.org. nd. Profile of the Mano River Women’s Peace Network.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.