Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Children’s Rights under Threat: Reflection from Emergencies Situation in Indonesia

Dini Widiastuti

Abstract

In time of emergency, gender based and sexual violence are common occurrence, including in the form of child marriage; schooling is disrupted for a considerable period of time and children are falling behind in their education and they have less opportunity to be together and play with their friends; plus, sexual and reproductive health are not normally receiving adequate attention. Participation of children and adolescents, boys and girls, is not only a matter of fulfillment of child rights but is in fact central for the success of humanitarian response. This writing attempts to analyse the impact of disaster on the fulfillment of child rights, especially the rights to protection and free from violence, education, health, play and participation and be heard, by using the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child as the framework. Gender, inequality and vulnerability lens are used as analytical tools. The method used is literature study, whilst the data and learning from the two major disasters in Indonesia occurred in 2018, the earthquake in Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara province and earthquake, tsunami & liquefaction in Central Sulawesi province are used as the main materials for analysis.

Keywords

child rights; Convention on the Rights of the Child; child protection; Lombok earthquake; tsunami and liquefaction Central Sulawesi; vulnerability; inequality.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Ahmad A 2018 “Conceptualizing Disasters from a Gender

Perspective”, in O’Mathúna D., Dranseika V., Gordijn B. (eds)

Disasters: Core Concepts and Ethical Theories,. Advancing Global

Bioethics, vol 11. Springer, Cam, Switzerland

Apfel et al. 1996, Minefield in their Hearts: The Mental Health of

Children in War and Communal Violence, Yale University Press, New

Haven

Balaban, V 2006, “Psychological Assessment of Children in Disasters

and Emergencies”, Disasters, Volume 30, Series 2, h. 178-198.

Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS), “Gini Ratio Maret 2019 tercatat

sebesar 0,382”, diakses pada 8 Mei 2020, https://www.bps.go.id/

pressrelease/2019/07/15/1630/gini-ratio-maret-2019-tercatatsebesar-0-382.html#:~:text=Pada%20Maret%202019%2C%20

tingkat%20ketimpangan,Maret%202018%20yang%20sebesar%20

%2C389.

Bradshaw, S & Fordham, M 2003, Women, Girls and Disaster: A Review

for DFID, diakses pada 8 Mei 2020, https://assets.publishing.service.

gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/

file/236656/women-girls-disasters.pdf

Cattleya, L 2018, Kerelawanan untuk Kesehatan Reproduksi Masa

Paska Bencana, diakses pada 9 Mei 2020, http://gemaalamntb.

org/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/2.-KERELAWANAN-UNTUKKESEHATAN-REPRODUKSI-MASA-PASKA-BENCANA-ilovepdfcompressed.pdf

CHS Alliance, Groupe URD & Sphere, Core Humanitarian Standard

for Quality and Accountability, Diakses pada 10 Mei 2020, https://

corehumanitarianstandard.org/the-standard

Empatika 2019, Listening to Children Who Were Affected by

Central Sulawesi Earthquake and Tsunami, diakses pada 8 Mei

, https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/

ListeningtoChildren_Palu_FinalReport.pdf

Enarson, E & Morrow, B (Ed.) 1999, The Gendered Terrain of Disaster:

Through Women’s Eyes, Praeger Press, Westport, Connecticut.

Enarson, E & Chakrabarti, P.G. Dhar (Ed.) 2009, Women, Gender and

Disasters: Global Issues and Initiatives, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

Mahapatra, Richard, “Natural Disasters are Shaped by Social and

Economic Inequality” 2019, Down To Earth, 16 April 2019, diakses

pada 10 Mei 2020, https://www.downtoearth.org.in/interviews/

climate-change/-natural-disasters-are-shaped-by-social-andeconomic-inequality--63825

IASC2018, Gender Handbook in Humanitarian Action, diakses pada

Mei 2020, https://interagencystandingcommittee.org/system/

files/2018-iasc_gender_handbook_for_humanitarian_action_

eng_0.pdf

Kementerian Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Perlindungan

Anak (KPPA) 2019, Profil Anak Indonesia, diakses pada 8 Mei 2020,

https://www.kemenpppa.go.id/lib/uploads/list/15242-profil-anakindonesia_-2019.pdf

Kementerian Kesehatan RI 2019, Remaja Perempuan dan Kaum Muda

dalam Krisis, Suara dari Sulawesi Tengah, Indonesia, diakses pada 8

Mei 2020, https://indonesia.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/

Final%20%20Remaja%20dalam%20situasi%20Bencana%20FinalBahasalowres.pdf

Kementerian Sosial 2013, Survey Kekerasan Terhadap Anak (SKTA),

diakses pada 9 Mei 2020, http://puslit.kemsos.go.id/upload/post/

files/4fb404d806e55b69e7fa7d4106344914.pdf

Kinoshita, I & Woolley, H 2015, “Children’s Play Environment after a

Disaster: The Great East Japan Earthquake”, Children (Basel), Vol. 2

No. 1, h. 39-62.

Machel, G 1996, The Impact of Armed Conflict on Children,

diakses pada 10 Mei 2020,https://childrenandarmedconflict.

un.org/1996/08/1996-graca-machel-report-impact-armedconflict-children/ )

Mehta, M 2007, Gender Matters: Lessons from Disaster Risk

Reduction in South Asia, International Centre for Integrated Mountain

Development, Kathmandu, diakses pada 9 Mei 2020, https://www.

preventionweb.net/files/2406_GenderandDisasters.pdf

Oxfam 2013, “Gender Issues in Confict and Humanitarian Action”,

Oxfam Humanitarian Policy Note, diakses pada 9 Mei 2020, https://

oxfamilibrary.openrepository.com/bitstream/handle/10546/305870/

hpn-gender-conflict-humanitarian-action-291113-en.pdf;jsessionid

=91AB662859C4C73C3A93E545ADBF18BB?sequence=1

Plan Indonesia 2020. Draft Analisa Rapid Needs Assessment

Pendidikan (tidak diterbitkan)

Peek, L 2008 “Children and Disasters: Understanding Vulnerability,

Developing Capacities, and Promoting Resilience – An

Introduction”, Children, Youth and Environments, Vol. 18 No. 1,

h. 1-29, diakses pada 9 Mei 2020, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.

org/200d/d9f509b311bb4391b9932bf5b081385b7f8d.pdf?_

ga=2.113031426.729399705.1591884884-224775972.1591884884

Ronan, K & Johnston, D 2005, Promoting Community Resilience in

Disasters, The Role for Schools, Youth and Families, Springer, Boston

Silverman, W & La Greca, A 1996, Children Experiencing Disaster:

Definitions, reactions and predictors of outcomes, diakses pada 9

Mei 2020, file:///C:/Users/ED/Downloads/Children_experiencing_

disasters_Definitions_reacti%20(1).pdf

Stotlman, J et al. 2007, International Perspective on Natural Disaster:

Occurrence, Mitigation and Consequences, Springer, Dordrecht.

The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health (PMCH)

, Protecting women’s and children’s health from a changing

climate, diakses pada 9 Mei 2020, www.who.int/pmnch/

knowledge/publications/summaries/ks32/en/index1.html

Unicef 2019, For every child, every right. The Convention on the

Rights of the Child at a crossroads, diakses pada 4 Mei 2020, https://

www.unicef.org/media/62371/file/Convention-rights-child-atcrossroads-2019.pdf

Unicef 2019, Summary of the UN Convention on the Rights of the

Child, diakses pada 4 Mei 2020, https://downloads.unicef.org.

uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/UNCRC_summary-1_1.pdf?_

ga=2.58260776.327347562.1589007034-1154580678.1589007034

UNISDR 2015, Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk

Reduction, UNISDR, Geneva, diakses pada 10 Mei 2020, https://

www.preventionweb.net/english/hyogo/gar/2015/en/gar-pdf/

GAR2015_EN.pdf

West, A 2015, Putting Children at the Heart of the World Humanitarian

Summit, diakses pada 9 Mei, https://resourcecentre.savethechildren.

net/node/9373/pdf/putting-children-at-the-heart_full_text_final.

pdf

Wisner, B., Blaikie, P., Cannon, T. and Davis, I. 2004, At risk: natural

hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters, Routledge, London.

“BNPB: 461 Tewas Akibat Bencana Sejak Awal Tahun hingga Akhir

” 2019, Tirto.id, 28 November, diakses pada 4 Mei 2020, https://

tirto.id/ems1

“BNPB: 60 Sampai 70% Korban Bencana Adalah Perempuan dan

Anak” 2019, Tirto.id, 8 Februari, diakses pada 4 Mei 2020, https://

tirto.id/dgod

”Inter-agency reproductive health kits for crisis situations” 2016,

IAWG, 22 Juli, diakses pada 10 Mei 2020, https://iawg.net/resources/

inter-agency-reproductive-health-kits-for-crisis-situations-2011

“Memperihatinkan banyak anak korban bencana alam di Sulteng

dinikahkan” 2019, VOA, 17 Juni, diakses pada 9 Mei, https://www.

voaindonesia.com/a/memprihatinkan-banyak-anak-korbanbencana-alam-di-sulteng-dinikahkan/4961155.html

“Pernyataan Sikap Komnas Perempuan: Urgensi Perspektif HAM

dengan Perhatian Khusus pada Kerentanan Perempuan dalam

Penanganan Pandemi COVID-19” 2020, Komnas Perempuan, 26 Maret

, diakses pada 9 Mei 2020, https://www.komnasperempuan.

go.id/read-news-pernyataan-sikap-komnas-perempuan-urgensiperspektif-ham-dengan-perhatian-khusus-pada-kerentananperempuan-dalam-penanganan-pandemi-covid-19

“Poverty and Inequality”, Preventionweb, diakses pada 9 Mei 2020,

https://www.preventionweb.net/risk/poverty-inequality

“Sepanjang 2019, BNPB Catat 3.721 Bencana Alam Terjadi di

Indonesia 2019, Kompas, 23 Desember, diakses pada 9 Mei 2020,

https://www.kompas.com/tren/read/2019/12/23/183700665/

sepanjang-2019-bnpb-catat-3.721-bencana-alam-terjadi-diindonesia

“Segudang masalah belajar dari rumah karena Corona COVID-19”

, Tirto.id, 20 Maret, diakses pada 5 Mei 2020, https://tirto.id/

segudang-masalah-belajar-dari-rumah-karena-corona-covid-19-

eGqQ )

“Studi ungkap orangtua dan anak sering konflik selama pandemic

Corona COVID-19” 2020, Liputan6, 2 April, diakses pada 8 Mei 2020,

https://www.liputan6.com/global/read/4216978/studi-ungkaporangtua-dan-anak-sering-konflik-selama-pandemi-coronacovid-19#

“Two thirds schools in Central Sulawesi remain damaged one year

after” 2019, Reliefweb, 28 September 2019, diakses pada 9 Mei

, https://reliefweb.int/report/indonesia/indonesia-two-thirdsschools-central-sulawesi-remain-damaged-one-year-after

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.