Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Women’s Labors in International Market: Mother’s Love, Agency and Plurality of Activism Politics

Dewi Candraningrum


Activism of international women’s labors does not deal with one version of global action yet manifesting in pluralism of actions with divergent and different forms. Many faces of Asia-Pacifics women’s movements, for example, are having multiple expressions in engaging with emancipatory politics at all levels. Effort to generalize their fights, resistance, and resilience will at the end reduce the capacity of their political movement in terms of framework, tradition, generation, ethnicity and nationalism. Women are collectively challenging the injustice, violence, and inequality by demonstrating differences which are linguistically, geographically and culturally defined. Thus, flexibility of action and resilience is the best cure to patriarchy. Keywords:


women labors; international market; activism

Full Text:



Amsden, A.H. (1980) ‘Introduction’, in A.H.Amsden (ed.) The Economics of Women and Work, Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Armstrong, P. (1982) ‘If it’s only women it doesn’t matter so much’, in J.West (ed.) Work, Women and the Labour Market, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Beechey, V. (1978) ‘Women and production: a critical analysis of some sociological theories of women’s work’, in A.Khun and A.M.Wolpe (eds) Feminism and Materialism. Women

and Modes of Production, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Beechey, V. and Perkins, T. (1987) A Matter of Hours, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Beneria, L. (1981) ‘Conceptualising the labour force: the underestimation of women’s economic activities’, Journal of Development Studies 17(3): 10–28.

Bruegel, I. (1979) ‘Women as a reserve army of labour; a note on recent British experience’, Feminist Review 3:12–23.

——(1989) ‘Sex and race in the labor market’, Feminist Review No. 32: 49–68.

Cockburn, C. (1983) Brothers. Male Dominance and Technological Change, London: Pluto Press.

——(1985) Machinery of Dominance. Women, Men and Technological Know-how, London:Pluto Press.

Craig, C., Rubery, J., Tarling, R., and Wilkinson, F. (1982) Labour Market Structure, Industrial Organisation and Low Pay, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Elson, D. and Pearson, R. (1981) “‘Nimble fingers make cheap workers”: An analysis of women’s employment in Third World export manufacturing’, Feminist Review 7:87– 107.

Heyzer, N. (1986) Working Women in South-East Asia. Development, Subordination and Emancipation, Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Josephides, S. (1988) ‘Honour, family and work: Greek Cypriot women before and after migration’, in S.Westwood and P.Bhachu (eds) Enterprising Women, London: Routledge.

Joshi, H. (1984) ‘Women’s participation in paid work. Further analysis of the women and employment survey’, Department of Employment Research Paper No. 45 London: Department of Employment.

Mincer, J. and Polachek, S. (1974) ‘Family investments in human capital: Earnings of women’, Journal of Political Economy 82(2):76–108.

Molyneux, M. (1979) ‘Beyond the domestic labour debate’, New Left Review 116:3–27.

Somerville, P. (1982) ‘Women: a reserve army of labour?’, m/f 7:35–60.

Szyszczak, E. (1985) ‘Pay inequalities and equal value claims’, Modern Law Review 48:139–157.

Westwood, S. (1988) ‘Workers and wives: continuities and discontinuities in the lives of Gujarati women’, in S.Westwood and P.Bhachu (eds) Enterprising Women, London: Routledge.

Abu-Lughod, J. (1990) ‘The romance of resistance: tracing transformations of power through Bedouin women’, American Ethnologist 17, 1: 41–55.

Callard, F.J. (1998) ‘The body in theory’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 16:387–400.

Das, D.K. (ed.) (1996) Emerging Growth Pole: The Asia-Pacific Economy, Singapore: PrenticeHall.

de Certeau, M. (1984) The Practice of Everyday Life, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Foucault, M. (1980) ‘The politics of health in the eighteenth century’, in C. Gordon (ed.) Michel Foucault: Power/Knowledge, Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1977,Brighton: Harvester Press.

Harvey, D. (2000) Spaces of Hope, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Hays-Mitchell, M. (1995) ‘Voices and visions from the streets – gender interests and political-participation among women informal traders in Latin-America’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 13, 4: 445–69.

hooks, b. (1990) Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics, Boston: South End Press.

Keith, M. and Pile, S. (1993) ‘Introduction: the politics of place’, in M. Keith and S. Pile (eds) Place and the Politics of Identity, London and New York: Routledge.

Lefebvre, H. (1991) The Production of Space, translated by Donald Nicholson-Smith, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Love, N.S. (1991) ‘Politics and voice(s): an empowerment/knowledge regime’, Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 3, 1: 86–103.

Randall, V. (1998) ‘Gender and power: women engage the state’, in V. Randall and G. Waylen (eds) Gender, Politics and the State, London and New York: Routledge.

Squires, J. (1999) Gender in Political Theory, Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Waylen, G. (1998) ‘Gender, feminism and the state: an overview’, in V. Randall and G. Waylen (eds) Gender, Politics and the State, London and New York: Routledge.


  • There are currently no refbacks.