Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Women Workers in the Indonesian Labor Market: Inevitable Marginalization

Poppy - Ismalina


By conducting descriptive statistical analysis and the establishment of two econometric models, this study proves that the marginalization of women in the Indonesian labor market still occurs even though the quality of Indonesian women from the level of education and work participation is increasing. The phenomenon of marginalization of women is characterized by 1) the wage gap due to gender differences, namely the wages received by female workers are lower than male workers for all types of work; 2) the chances of men to find work are far higher than women in the Indonesian labor market. The study concludes that the wage gap due to gender differences is not due to competition in the labor market but rather due to the assumption that working women are secondary and supplementary breadwinners in their households, and the role that they can be play is only an extension of their domestic role. Thus, the main cause of the marginalization of women in the labor market is the low awareness of gender equality, something which has already taken root in Indonesia.



marginalization of women; labor market; wage gap; gender inequality

Full Text:



Anker, R, Buvinic, M & Youssef, N (eds.) 1982, Womens' Roles and Population Trend in the Third World, Croom Helm, London.

Boston, ThD 1990, "Segmented Labor Markets: New Evidence From A Study Of Four Race-Gender Groups", Industrial and Labor Relations Review, vol. 44, hh. 99-115.

Boudet, AMM, Petesch, P, Turk, C & Thumala, A 2013, On Norms and Agency: Conversations about Gender Equality with Women and Men in 20 Countries, World Bank, Washington D.C.

Bradshaw, S, Castellino, J & Diop, B 2013, Women's role in Economic Development: Overcoming The Constraints, s.l. Sustainable Development Solutions Network.

Budiman, A 1985, Pembagian Kerja Secara Seksual, Sebuah Pembahasan Sosiologis tentang Peran Wanita dalam Masyarakat, Gramedia, Jakarta.

Fakih, M 2004, Analisis Gender dan Transformasi Sosial, Pustaka Pelajar, Yogyakarta.

International Labour Organization 2017, Economic Impacts of Reducing the Gender Gap, Research Brief No. 10, International Labour Office, Geneva.

International Labour Organization 2018, World Employment Social Outlook 2018, International Labour Office, Geneva.

Kementerian Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Perlindungan Anak & BPS 2016, Potret Ketimpangan Gender dalam Ekonomi, KPPPA, Jakarta.

Kementerian Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Perlindungan Anak & BAPPENAS 2011, Kertas Kebijakan Kesetaraan Gender: Indonesia, KPPPA, Jakarta.

Sajogyo, P 1983, Peranan Wanita dalam Pembangunan Masyarakat Desa, CV. Rajawali, Jakarta.

Scott, AME 1986, "Women and Industrialization: Examining The Female Marginalisation", The Journal or Development Studies, vol. 22, no. 4, hh. 649 - 680.

WHO n.d., Global Health Observatory (GHO) Data: Life Expectancy, dilihat 4 November 2018,

World Economic Forum 2017, The Global Gender Gap Report 2017, WEF, Geneva.


  • There are currently no refbacks.